There are two types of palm kernel cake, depending on the process to get it — either through mechanical or solvent process. In Malaysia, mechanical extraction by screw press is the most widely used. The solvent extraction process is generally not used because it is more expensive.
Although palm kernel cake supplies both protein and energy, it is looked upon more as a source of protein. Palm kernel cake is a reasonably good economic feed for cattle, both for fattening and supplementary feeding. It has effectively reduced the cost of milk production in Malaysia because it is a substitute of costly imported feedstuffs like soybean meal and ground maize.
Palm kernel cake, by itself, is a medium grade protein feed and with its high fibre content is often thought of being more suitable for feeding of ruminants. Palm kernel cake is ranked a little higher than copra cake and cocoa pod husk but lower than fish meal and groundnut cake, especially in its protein value.
Besides oil and protein, palm kernel cake also has high fibre content of 16 per cent and high phosphorus to calcium ratio. Also present are essential elements like magnesium, iron and zinc. The typical feed ration formulated for the feeding of dairy cattle comprises 50 per cent palm kernel cake, molasses (5 per cent), grass/hay (42 per cent), limestone (1.5 per cent), mineral premix (1 per cent) and salt (0.5 per cent) and trace element of vitamin premix.
Palm kernel by country
New Zealand is the largerst importer of PKE.
Cadbury was forced to back down on plans to use palm oil in their New Zealand Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate.
Environmental issues with agriculture
Environmental impact of palm oil
^ OIL PALM FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin-148, 2002, 60pg, ISBN: 9251048592
^ Malaysian Palm Kernel Cake as Animal Feed Hishamuddin Mohd Aspar, 2001, Palm Oil Developments 34
^ Palm Kernel Cake as a supplement for fattening and dairy cattle in Malaysia FY Chin, 1992, FAO, Manado, Chapter 25
^ Evaluation of Palm Kernel Meal and Corn Distillers Grains in Corn Silage-Based Diets for Lactating Dairy Cows Carvalho, Cabrita, Dewhurst, Vicente, Lopes, and Fonseca, 2006, Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 89, No. 7
^ Nutritive value of palm kernel cake and cocoa pod husks for growing cattle Wong Hee Kum, Wan Zahari Mohamed, 1997, Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, Vol. 25, No. 1, ISSN:1394-9829
^ Quality and Characteristics of Malaysian Palm Kernel Cakes/Expellers Tang Thin Sue, 2001, Palm Oil Developments 34
^ Use of Palm Kernel Cake and Oil Palm By-Products in Compound Feed M Wan Zahari and A R Alimon, 2004, Palm Oil Developments 40
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